Section I Use of English
Medicine has not always shown a lot of respect for the human body. Just think about the ghoulish disregard early surgeons had for our corporeal integrity. They poked holes in the skull and copiously drained blood with leeches or lancets—a practice that remained a medical mainstay through the late 19th century. Even today many of the most popular surgeries involve the wholesale removal of body parts—the appendix, gallbladder, tonsils, uterus (usually after the childbearing years)—with an assurance that patients will do just fine without them. There are many valid reasons for these “ectomies,” but what has become increasingly less defensible is the idea that losing these organs is of little or no consequence.
Take the appendix. Or rather leave it be, if possible. Many of us learned in school that this tiny, fingerlike projection off the colon is a useless, vestigial remnant of our evolution, much like the puny leg bones found in some snakes. But that idea has been debunked, says evolutionary biologist Heather Smith, director of Anatomical Laboratories at Midwestern University in Arizona. A 2017 study led by Smith reviewed data on 533 species of mammals and found that the appendix appears across multiple, unrelated species. “This suggests there's some good reason to have it,” she says.
The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The reason appears to be immunological and gastrointestinal. In all species that have an appendix, Smith notes, it either contains or is closely associated with lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in supporting the immune system. In humans, the appendix also harbors a layer of helpful gut bacteria—a fact discovered by scientists at Duke University. In a 2007 paper, they proposed that it serves as a “safe house” to preserve these microbes, so that when the gut microbiome is hit hard by illness, we can replenish it with good guys holed up in the appendix. Some evidence for this idea surfaced in 2011, when a study showed that people without an appendix are two and half times more likely to suffer a recurrence of infection with Clostridium difficile, a dangerous strain of gut bacteria that thrives in the absence of friendlier types.
Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to do.
The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。
The appendix may have more far-flung roles in the body—including some that can go awry. A study published last October found that misfolded alpha-synuclein—an abnormal protein found in the brain of Parkinson's disease patients—can accumulate in the appendix. Intriguingly, the study found that people who had the organ removed as young adults appear to have some modest protection against Parkinson's.
he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection。
New research has also shed light on the value of our tonsils and adenoids. In a study published last July, an international team assessed the long-term impact of removing these structures, or leaving them, in 1.2 million Danish children. Over a follow-up period of 10 to 30 years, the 5 percent or so who had one or both sets of organs extracted before age nine were found to have a twofold to threefold higher rate of upper respiratory diseases and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Notably they suffered more frequently from ear infections and, in the case of adenotonsillectomies, sinus infections—conditions thought to be helped by surgery.
同位语从句前面的名词只好是idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise, order等有早晚内涵的名词，而定语从句的先行词能够是名词、代词，主句的一某个或许整个主句，如：
不敢公开：Dare not speak its name
This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of 100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this state of affairs。
We have known for a long time that the adenoids and tonsils “act as a first line of defense against pathogens that enter through the airways or eating,” says Sean Byars, a senior research fellow at the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health and lead author of the paper. The fact that these tissues are most prominent in children, with the adenoids nearly gone by adulthood, has bolstered the view that they are not essential, but as Byars points out, “maybe there's a reason they are largest in childhood.” Perhaps they play a developmental role, helping to shape the immune system in ways that have lasting consequences.
The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at home is often discussed。人们平时谈论大好些个壮劳力将会在家里做事的也许。(同位语从句)
不依附于任何机关：Work indipendently of any institution
1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased
Byars cautions that his study, large though it is, awaits confirmation by others and that the decision to treat any given child must be made on an individual basis. Still, he says, “Given these are some of the most common surgeries in childhood, our results suggest a conservative approach would be wise.”
Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 大家的队赢了，那让大家很欢跃。(定语从句)
协助广泛该意见：Help popularize the idea
2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare
It is worth noting that tonsillectomy rates have declined in the U.S., especially since the heyday in the mid-20th century. Surgeons are also doing fewer hysterectomies, reflecting a growing view that the uterus does not outlive its usefulness once childbearing is done and that there are less drastic ways to address common issues such as fibroid tumors.
引起了非常的大的龃龉：Arouse much controversy
3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against
So are any human body parts truly useless or vestigial? Perhaps the best case can be made for the wisdom teeth. “Our faces are so flat, compared with other primates, that there's often not room for them,” Smith observes. And given how we butcher and cook our food, “we really don't need them.”
1想到……就不寒而栗的躯体颤抖：Tremble at the thought of
4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately
The news that our team has won the game was true. 大家队赢了本场比赛的新闻是真的。(同位语从句，补充表明news到底是二个什么音讯。)
5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence
The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨日她告知作者的不行音讯是真的。(定语从句，news在从句中作told的宾语。)
由细菌滋生的：Have a bacterial cause
6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk
7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects
有个别指点词如how, whether, what能够引导同位语从句，但不能够携带定语从句，如：
He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.
8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question
That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否供给它这些主题材料还并未有考虑。(同位语从句)
结构提醒：that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句，not previously thought to have a bacterial cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually infections.
9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating
10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total
The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 大家应派几个人去帮别的多少个小组的吩咐今天接受了。(同位语从句，是对order的具体表明，that虽不作成分，但不能轻易。)
11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately
The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 大家明天吸收接纳的指令是我们应该派几人去支援其余多少个小组。(定语从句，是名词order的修饰语，that在从句中作received的宾语，能够大致。)
They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of affairs.
[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably
12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers
The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it persists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing controversy over suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite from Mars。
13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve
以前被感到是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated
14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile
句子可拆分为：The issue of //whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it persists to this day, //has been highlighted //by mounting evidence //that the Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid water and //by the continuing controversy over suggestions //that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite from 马尔斯。
归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects
15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down
主句为：The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it persists to this day, has been highlighted by… and by…。主句主语的构造为： The issue of whether…and whether…。of 短语修饰the issue, of 短语较长1般译在后面；that the Red Planet…是evidence的同位语从句，(就是evidence的具体内容)。that bacterial fossils…是suggestions的同位语从句，表明suggestions的具体内容。)第二个同位语从句能够直接翻译在所修饰词前面。第三个同位语能够献身所修饰的名词前面，充当定语。
中度重教的价值观a strong tradition of valuing education
16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing
被作为基因隔开分离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation
17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument
密切相关 be intimately linked
18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined
使他们接受独特的前进力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures
19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed
龃龉的地方 paradoxical state of affairs
20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous
Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)
Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately linked.
Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking。
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness。
Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha！ experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。
One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。
Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution。
- According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to